the great encyclical from a truly holy Pope, Blessed Paul VI, marks its 50th anniversary this year. And, despite the gleeful hints by Mrs Melinda Gates and others, this anniversary will not be an occasion for a change or adaption in the unchanging and unchangeable teaching that artificial contraception is intrinsically immoral. Lots will be said on this: among much else, HV was an extraordinarily prophetic document, and this aspect is one worth studying and emphasising. But there is more. At all times, the true and authentic teaching of the Church needs to be defended and upheld, and this requires courage.