Which Reformation? What Reform?
Despite the formulation you’ll hear before and after the October 31 quincentenary of Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses, there was no single “Reformation” to which the Catholic “Counter-Reformation” was the similarly univocal response. Rather, as Yale historian Carlos Eire shows in his eminently readable and magisterial work,
Reformations: The Early Modern World, 1450–1650
, there were multiple, contending reformations in play in the first centuries of modernity.
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